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Calculating Costs of Goods Sold

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calculating costs of goods sold

The value of inventory is a major factor in calculating cost of goods sold. Business inventory could be products that are bought from a wholesaler or made by the business owner and then sold. In other cases, inventory could be parts and materials for the products that the business makes. In either case, inventory has a specific value. Most businesses take their inventory at the beginning and end of the year. The value of inventory varies from business to business, but it can be an important consideration when calculating COGS.

COGS is a business expense

For businesses with a large inventory, it’s important to understand how COGS is calculated. The cost of production is a direct business expense, and increasing it can result in a lower income tax bill. Regardless of whether you’re a small or large business, you should always be aware of your COGS. In addition, COGS is an essential part of preparing your tax returns, since it helps the IRS know how much your business is making.

When calculating COGS, you must keep track of all the items you bought throughout the year. These expenses include the items and shipments you’ve made. Whether they were purchased or manufactured, all costs should be documented in the correct fiscal year. You should also record any costs incurred on inventory. In addition to products you’ve sold, you have items in stock that you don’t sell yet. These products are accounted for separately when calculating COGS.

It includes direct costs

COGS stands for cost of goods sold. The cost of goods sold is a measure of the total cost of a company’s products and services. It includes direct costs such as the costs of raw materials, packaging materials, and labor for creating the products and services. Indirect costs do not factor into this calculation, but they are included in COGS. A company must calculate COGS every period that it keeps records of its business activities, but you may prefer to calculate it yearly.

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Direct costs are expenses that are directly related to a specific cost object, such as the materials and labor needed for production. These costs can be fixed or variable, and they are usually more expensive than indirect costs. For example, a company may include the costs of employees’ wages in its operating costs. Other costs, however, aren’t directly related to the product or service. These indirect costs are the costs a company incurs in order to maintain its business and to keep its products and services running.

It includes indirect costs

When you’re in the business of selling a product, you’ll want to calculate your costs of goods sold (COGS). For example, if you’re a mechanic, your cost of goods sold is your knowledge, experience, and time. But, what about the parts and materials you purchase and resell? These are indirect costs that you will need to figure out and write off when you calculate COGS.

Most direct costs are variable, such as the hardware and software for a smartphone. You need these items to produce the product, but that doesn’t mean you can’t include them as indirect costs. These include things like utilities, rent, cell phones, and desk computers. They may also be fixed or variable, meaning their costs fluctuate as the company’s output increases or decreases. While direct costs are necessary for the development of your product, indirect costs are what you’d spend to run the company.

It includes purchase discounts

What are purchases and discounts? When calculating your costs of goods sold, you should exclude any money that you did not pay for the product. A purchase discount is money you received from the product’s supply chain. In the example above, a company received $24,000 in purchases, which includes the COGS of $3,500. Freight in refers to the transportation costs of raw materials, while ending inventory refers to closing stock. Purchase discounts are money you did not pay for, so you should not include these when calculating costs of goods sold.

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It includes purchase returns

Often overlooked, the cost of goods sold (COGS) is an important component of a company’s tax report. Businesses that sell products or buy and resell goods must figure out their cost of goods sold. Writing off COGS decreases taxes due. To figure COGS, businesses need to know the cost of their inventory at the start of the tax year and at the end of the year.

It includes certain overhead costs

Overhead costs are expenses that aren’t directly related to production but still have an impact on the overall operation of the business. Some of these costs are related to the maintenance of the production facility, rent, and the depreciation of equipment. They include other indirect costs, such as salaries and legal expenses. Listed below are the major categories of overhead expenses that companies must consider when determining their costs of goods sold.

Direct material and labor costs are those expenses that are directly related to the production of the product. Manufacturing overhead, on the other hand, refers to costs that aren’t directly traceable to the finished product, like property taxes on the factory building. While this tax is typically allocated to the entire year, GAAP requires that this cost be allocated to the product made. Another overhead cost related to manufacturing is labor for moving materials and inspecting products.

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Finance

The Fascinating Universe of Collectible American Coins

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The Fascinating Universe of Collectible American Coins

The Fascinating Universe of Collectible American Coins

 

Did you know gold has been a go-to for people wanting to diversify their investments and guard their income for centuries? Believe it or not, in today’s topsy-turvy economy, gold’s steady yields and proven durability are hot commodities for investors worldwide.

One of the trendiest ways to convert greenbacks into gold is by purchasing gold bars and coins.

Gold coins might be particularly tempting to investors due to their snazzy aesthetic and historical value–in addition to their monetary worth. But where to start–that’s the million dollar question? With so many gold coins out there, how do you decide what (and how) to bet on?

 

Golden Eagles Soaring High – American Gold Eagle Coins

Let’s dive in with the American Gold Eagle coins — a red-hot favorite and a well-known player in the gold coins market.

The U.S Mint whips up these 22-karat gold coins decorated with a Lady Liberty design on the obverse side, while the reverse side flaunts a bald eagle nesting or a bald eagle’s head, year-dependent.

And here’s what’s also interesting–you can claim these American Gold Eagle coins in various weights: 1 oz, 1/2 oz, 1/4 oz and 1/10 oz. The same goes for its ‘cousin’– the American eagle silver coin.

 

The Canadian Maple Leaf–Not Quiet American, but Close Enough

The 24-karat gold Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin, sculpted by the Royal Canadian Mint, is an absolute stunner.

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Hitting the ground in 1979, this golden wonder was in toe-to-toe competition with the South African Gold Krugerrand and is still regarded as one of the world’s purest and most coveted gold bullion coins.

The design? A maple leaf on the obverse side and an image of Queen Elizabeth II on the reverse.

What’s rad is that Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins come in an array of weights, from 1/25 oz all the way up to 1 ounce.

 

Unleashing the Golden Buffalo – American Gold Buffalo Coins

Say hello to the American Gold Buffalo coin–another popular (and very favored)choice among investors and collectors alike.

The design is a tribute to the 1913 Buffalo Nickel conceived by renowned James Earle Fraser. You’ll see a Native American chief’s profile on the obverse side and an American buffalo on the reverse.

What’s fun to note is that American Gold Buffalo coins are 24 karats—higher purity than American Gold Eagle coins.

 

The Golden Wrap Up

Dropping some money into gold coins can be a savvy strategy to protect your overall investment bundle from losses and fend off inflation.

The coins discussed above are top-notch options for anyone keen on adding a dash of the shiny metal to their investment portfolio or who gets a kick out of curating a collection.

Always remember — before making any investment decision, do your legwork, contemplate your investment goals and risk tolerance, and seek advice from a financial guru for individualized guidance based on your unique financial situation. Good Luck!


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Finance

Writing Essays Online – The Pros and Cons of Plagiarism

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Writing Essays Online - The Pros and Cons of Plagiarism

An report accuses some students to utilize online paid essay services to attempt to better their grades. Students may use these to attempt to improve their scores on standardized tests. Is this true? How does it work?

Academic researchers believe that students could be using essay writing solutions to attempt and boost their grades. (more…)

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Finance

Top 13 Richest Cities in the World by Number of Millionaires

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Top 13 Richest Cities In The World By Number of Millionaires

Top 13 Richest Cities In The World By Number of Millionaires

 

We live in an era of rapid economic growth and prosperity. Many cities around the globe have become thriving hubs of wealth, attracting millionaires from various industries.

In this article, we will explore the top 13 richest cities in the world by the number of millionaires. By understanding these prosperous urban centers, we can glean valuable insights into the global economy and the distribution of wealth.

 

 

1. New York City, United States

New York City, United States

New York City, often referred to as the Big Apple, is undoubtedly one of the wealthiest cities globally. With a high concentration of millionaires and billionaires, it is home to the world’s largest financial market, the New York Stock Exchange. The city’s vibrant economy is powered by diverse sectors, including finance, real estate, technology, and media.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Real Estate
  • Technology
  • Media

 

 

2. Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo, Japan

The bustling capital of Japan, Tokyo is a hub of commerce and innovation. With its strong economy, the city has attracted numerous millionaires who have made their fortunes in various industries. Tokyo’s Stock Exchange is the third-largest in the world, contributing significantly to the city’s wealth.

Key Industries:

  • Technology
  • Manufacturing
  • Finance
  • Retail

 

3. London, United Kingdom

London, United Kingdom

A global center for finance and culture, London is home to a large number of millionaires. Its status as a financial capital has attracted wealthy individuals in banking, hedge funds, and private equity. Additionally, the city’s thriving arts and cultural scene attracts high net worth individuals from around the world.

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Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Real Estate
  • Arts and Culture
  • Technology

 

 

4. San Francisco, United States

San Francisco, United States

San Francisco and the surrounding Silicon Valley have become synonymous with technological innovation and entrepreneurship. The city’s thriving tech ecosystem has generated a significant number of millionaires and billionaires, thanks to the success of companies like Apple, Google, and Facebook.

Key Industries:

  • Technology
  • Venture Capital
  • Biotechnology
  • Green Energy

 

 

5. Hong Kong, China

Hong Kong, China

Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of China, is a major financial hub in Asia. Its strategic location and business-friendly environment have made it a magnet for wealthy individuals in finance, real estate, and trade. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is one of the largest and most active in the world.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Real Estate
  • Trade
  • Retail

 

 

6. Sydney, Australia

Sydney, Australia

As Australia’s most populous city, Sydney has a diverse and robust economy. The city’s natural beauty, high quality of life, and thriving business sectors have made it a popular destination for millionaires. Its key industries include finance, real estate, tourism, and technology.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Real Estate
  • Tourism
  • Technology

 

 

7. Singapore

Singapore

Singapore is a small island nation with a powerful and dynamic economy. Its strategic location as a global trade hub has attracted wealthy individuals from various industries. The city-state’s pro-business environment, excellent infrastructure, and high quality of life make it a top choice for millionaires.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Trade
  • Real Estate
  • Technology

 

 

8. Zurich, Switzerland

Zurich, Switzerland

Zurich is Switzerland’s largest city and a global center for banking and finance. Its stable economy, low tax rates, and renowned private banking sector have attracted a significant number of millionaires. The city is also home to major international corporations and a growing technology sector.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Technology
  • Manufacturing

 

 

9. Los Angeles, United States

Los Angeles, United States

Los Angeles is a global entertainment hub, known primarily for its thriving film and television industry. As the home of Hollywood, the city has attracted numerous millionaires and billionaires involved in media, entertainment, and technology.

Los Angeles also has a strong presence in industries like aerospace, fashion, and tourism.

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Key Industries:

  • Entertainment
  • Media
  • Technology
  • Aerospace

 

 

10. Mumbai, India

Mumbai, India

As India’s financial capital, Mumbai is home to the country’s largest corporations, stock exchanges, and banking institutions. The city’s growing economy has generated a significant number of millionaires, particularly in industries such as finance, real estate, and technology. Mumbai is also known for its thriving Bollywood film industry.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Real Estate
  • Technology
  • Entertainment

 

 

11. Paris, France

Paris, France

Paris, the romantic capital of France, is not only known for its rich cultural heritage and history but also for its robust economy. As a major global financial center, Paris has attracted numerous millionaires who have made their fortunes in industries such as fashion, finance, luxury goods, and tourism.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Fashion
  • Luxury Goods
  • Tourism

 

 

12. Toronto, Canada

Toronto, Canada

Toronto is Canada’s largest city and economic powerhouse. The city’s thriving economy is driven by diverse industries, including finance, technology, and real estate. Toronto’s stock exchange is the largest in Canada and the ninth-largest in the world, contributing significantly to the city’s wealth.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Real Estate
  • Technology
  • Life Sciences

 

 

13. Shanghai, China

Shanghai, China

As one of China’s most populous and prosperous cities, Shanghai has experienced rapid economic growth in recent decades. The city is a global financial hub and home to the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the world’s largest. Key industries in Shanghai include finance, real estate, and technology.

Key Industries:

  • Finance
  • Real Estate
  • Technology
  • Manufacturing

 

 

Conclusion

The top 13 richest cities in the world by the number of millionaires showcase the diversity and strength of the global economy.

From finance hubs like New York City and London to technology centers like San Francisco and Tokyo, these cities represent the pinnacle of wealth and success.

As the world continues to evolve, we can expect these urban centers to remain at the forefront of innovation, driving economic growth and prosperity.

 

 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 

 

 

1. Which city has the most millionaires?

New York City currently has the highest number of millionaires, thanks to its strong economy and status as a global financial capital.

 

 

2. Which industries are most prevalent in these wealthy cities?

Key industries among these cities include finance, real estate, technology, and trade. However, each city has its unique mix of thriving sectors, such as entertainment in Los Angeles and luxury goods in Paris.

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3. What factors make a city attractive to millionaires?

Factors that attract millionaires to a city include a strong economy, business-friendly environment, high quality of life, and opportunities for investment and wealth creation. Additionally, cities with well-developed infrastructure, excellent healthcare, and education systems, as well as cultural and recreational opportunities, are also attractive to high net worth individuals.

 

 

4. How does the concentration of millionaires impact a city’s economy?

A high concentration of millionaires can contribute to a city’s economic growth by driving investments, creating job opportunities, and stimulating local businesses. Their wealth and spending can also contribute to the city’s tax revenue, helping to fund public services and infrastructure projects.

 

 

5. Are there any emerging cities that could make this list in the future?

Emerging cities like Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Bangalore, India; and São Paulo, Brazil have experienced rapid economic growth and are home to a growing number of millionaires. As these cities continue to develop, they could potentially join the ranks of the top 13 richest cities in the world.

 

 

6. Do these cities also have a high number of billionaires?

Yes, many of these cities also have a high concentration of billionaires. For example, New York City, San Francisco, and Hong Kong are known for their significant number of billionaires in addition to millionaires.

 

 

7. How do wealthy individuals contribute to a city’s cultural scene?

Wealthy individuals often invest in and support the arts, museums, and cultural institutions in their cities. They may also sponsor events, donate to charitable causes, and commission works of art, contributing to a vibrant and diverse cultural scene.

 

 

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